Articles in press have been peer-reviewed and accepted, which are not yet assigned to volumes /issues, but are citable by Digital Object Identifier (DOI).
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Clinically and orally compatible formulation-manufactured DDX5 (p68)-targeting molecular glue FL118 products exhibit low toxicity but high efficacy against human cancer
Xiang Ling, Wenjie Wu, Li Yan, Leslie Curtin, Melanie M. Farrauto, Sandra Sexton, Anmbreen Jamroze, Changjun Yu, Christos Fountzilas, Dean G. Tang, Fengzhi Li
 doi: 10.1016/j.jpha.2024.101001
[Abstract](24) [PDF 1457KB](2)
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Investigation of oligomeric proanthocyanidins extracted from Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizomes using deep eutectic solvents and identified via data-dependentacquisition mass-spectroscopy
Li Jia, Liming Wang, Xiaoxiao Zhang, Qingrui Zhang, Peng Lei, Yanxu Chang, Lifeng Han, Xin Chai, Wenzhi Yang, Yuefei Wang, Miaomiao Jiang
 doi: 10.1016/j.jpha.2024.101002
[Abstract](18) [PDF 22328KB](6)
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In this study, 34 deep eutectic solvents were successfully prepared for the extraction of proanthocyanidin from Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizomes. The extraction process was optimized using single factor exploration and Box-Behnken design- response surface analysis. The extraction rate was significantly improved when the molar ratio of choline chloride to 1,3-propanediol was 1:3.5 and the water content was 30% (V/V) in deep eutectic solvents. AB-8 macroporous resin and ethyl acetate were used for separation and refining, and the oligomer-rich proanthocyanidin components were eventually obtained. The ultraviolet (UV) and infrared spectrometer (IR) spectra showed that the proanthocyanidins were mainly composed of catechin and epicatechin. To further clarify the chemical composition of proanthocyanidin, an ion scan list containing 156 proanthocyanidins precursors was obtained by constructing a proanthocyanidins structural library and mass defect filtering algorithm, combined with the Full mass spectrometry (MS)/dd-MS2 scan mode that turns on the “if idle pick others” function. By using Ultra high performance liquid chromatography & High-resolution mass spectrometer (UHPLC/Orbitrap MS), the analysis used both targeted and non- targeted methods to detect proanthocyanidins. Finally, 50 oligomeric proanthocyanidin compounds were identified, including 7 monomers, 22 dimers, 20 trimers, and 1 tetramer, most of which were procyanidins of proanthocyanidins (84%), and a small amount of prodelphinidin (14%) and other types of proanthocyanidins (2%), which enabled the systematic characterization of proanthocyanidin components from Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizomes. Meanwhile, the comparison with the grape seeds oligomeric proanthocyanidins standard (United States Pharmacopoeia) revealed that the proanthocyanidins in Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizomes were more abundant, suggesting that the proanthocyanidins in Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizomes has promising applications.
Circulating Memory T Cells and TCF1+ T Cells Aid in Diagnosis and Monitor Disease Activity in Vitiligo
Xinju Wang, Jianru Chen, Wei Wu, Jinrong Fan, Luling Huang, Weiwei Sun, Kaiqiao He, Shuli Li, Chunying Li
 doi: 10.1016/j.jpha.2024.100998
[Abstract](17) [PDF 1090KB](4)
Abstract:
Vitiligo is an immune memory skin disease. T-cell factor 1 (TCF1) is essential for maintaining the maintenance of the memory T-cell pool. There is an urgent need to investigate the characteristics of peripheral memory T-cell profile and TCF1+ T-cell frequencies in patients with vitiligo patients. In this study, 31 patients with active vitiligo (AV), 22 with stable vitiligo (SV), and 30 healthy controls (HCs) were included. We measured circulating memory and TCF1+ T-cell frequencies using by flow cytometry. The Spearman’s rank test was used to evaluate the correlation correlations between cell frequencies and disease characteristics. Receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) were constructed to investigate the discriminative power of the cell subpopulations. Circulating CD4+ and CD8+ terminally differentiated effector memory T-cell (TEMRA) frequencies were significantly higher in the AV group than in compared to HCs (P < 0.05). TCF1+ T-cell subpopulations were widespread increased in patients with vitiligo patients (P < 0.05). After adjusting adjustment for potential confounders, CD8+ and CD4+ central memory (TCM) cells, and CD8+ TEMRA were correlated with disease activity (P < 0.05). The combined diagnostic value of the four (naïve naive, effector memory, TCM, and TEMRA) CD8+TCF1+ T-cell subsets was relatively high (area under the ROC curve [AUC]AUC = 0.804, sensitivity = 71.70%, specificity = 83.34%), and the CD8+ T-cell subsets combination performed well in discriminating disease activity (AUC = 0.849, sensitivity = 70.97%, specificity = 90.91%). We demonstrated an altered circulating memory T-cell profile and increased TCF1+ T-cell percentage percentages in patients with vitiligo patients. T-cell subpopulations had a strong value values for vitiligo diagnosis and activity evaluation. This evidence presents a potential new pharmacological target for inhibiting to inhibit the autoimmunity that leads leading to vitiligo disease activity.
Multidimensional screening of Astragalus membranaceus small molecules to mitigate carbon ion radiation-induced bystander effects
Liying Zhang, Yiming Zhang, Yangyang Li, Qiyang Li, Shangzu Zhang, Zhiming Miao, Jinpeng He, Ting Zhou, Gengqiang Yang, Xin Wang, Jufang Wang, Yongqi Liu
 doi: 10.1016/j.jpha.2024.100999
[Abstract](14) [PDF 14542KB](7)
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Optical biosensing of monkeypox virus using novel recombinant silica-binding proteins for site-directed antibody immobilization
Xixi Song, Ying Tao, Sumin Bian, Mohamad Sawan
 doi: 10.1016/j.jpha.2024.100995
[Abstract](15) [PDF 7173KB](3)
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The efficient immobilization of capture antibodies is crucial for timely pathogen detection during global pandemic outbreaks. Therefore, we proposed a silica-binding protein featuring core functional domains (cSP). It comprises a peptide with a silica-binding tag designed to adhere to silica surfaces and tandem protein G fragments for effective antibody capture. This innovation facilitates precise site-directed immobilization of antibodies onto silica surfaces. We applied cSP to silica-coated optical fibers, creating a fiber-optic biolayer interferometer (FO-BLI) biosensor capable of monitoring the Monkeypox Virus (MPXV) Protein A29L in spiked clinical samples to rapidly detect the MPXV. The cSP-based FO-BLI biosensor for MPXV demonstrated a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.62 ng/mL in buffer, comparable to the 0.52 ng/mL LOD achieved using a conventional streptavidin-based FO-BLI biosensor. Furthermore, it achieved LODs of 0.77 ng/mL in spiked serum and 0.80 ng/mL in spiked saliva, exhibiting no cross-reactivity with other viral antigens. The MPXV detection process was completed within 14 min. We further proposed a cSP-based multi-virus biosensor strategy capable of detecting various pandemic strains, such as MPXV, the latest coronavirus disease (COVID) variants, and influenza A protein, to extend its versatility. The proposed cSP-modified FO-BLI biosensor has a high potential for rapidly and accurately detecting MPXV antigens, making valuable contributions to epidemiological studies.
miR-135b: an emerging player in cardio-cerebrovascular diseases
Yingchun Shao, Jiazhen Xu, Wujun Chen, Minglu Hao, Xinlin Liu, Renshuai Zhang, Yanhong Wang, Yinying Dong
 doi: 10.1016/j.jpha.2024.100997
[Abstract](10) [PDF 9164KB](3)
Abstract:
miR-135 is a highly conserved miRNA in mammals and includes miR-135a and miR-135b. Recent studies have shown that miR-135b is a key regulatory factor in cardio-cerebrovascular diseases. It is involved in regulating the pathological process of myocardial infarction, myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury, cardiac hypertrophy, atrial fibrillation, diabetic cardiomyopathy, atherosclerosis, pulmonary hypertension, cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. Obviously, miR-135b is an emerging player in cardio-cerebrovascular diseases and is expected to be an important target for the treatment of cardio-cerebrovascular diseases. However, the crucial role of miR-135b in cardio-cerebrovascular diseases and its underlying mechanism of action has not been reviewed. Therefore, in this review, we aimed to comprehensively summarize the role of miR-135b and the signaling pathway mediated by miR-135b in cardio-cerebrovascular diseases. Drugs targeting miR-135b for the treatment of diseases and related patents, highlighting the importance of this target and its utility as a therapeutic target for cardio-cerebrovascular diseases, have been discussed.
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Review papers
Modern approaches for detection of volatile organic compounds in metabolic studies focusing on pathogenic bacteria: Current state of the art
Karolina Żuchowska, Wojciech Filipiak
2024, 14(4): 100898.   doi: 10.1016/j.jpha.2023.11.005
Abstract(51) HTML Full Text PDF(11)
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Pathogenic microorganisms produce numerous metabolites, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Monitoring these metabolites in biological matrices (e.g., urine, blood, or breath) can reveal the presence of specific microorganisms, enabling the early diagnosis of infections and the timely implementation of targeted therapy. However, complex matrices only contain trace levels of VOCs, and their constituent components can hinder determination of these compounds. Therefore, modern analytical techniques enabling the non-invasive identification and precise quantification of microbial VOCs are needed. In this paper, we discuss bacterial VOC analysis under in vitro conditions, in animal models and disease diagnosis in humans, including techniques for offline and online analysis in clinical settings. We also consider the advantages and limitations of novel microextraction techniques used to prepare biological samples for VOC analysis, in addition to reviewing current clinical studies on bacterial volatilomes that address inter-species interactions, the kinetics of VOC metabolism, and species- and drug-resistance specificity.
Pretreatment and analysis techniques development of TKIs in biological samples for pharmacokinetic studies and therapeutic drug monitoring
Lan Chen, Yuan Zhang, Yi-Xin Zhang, Wei-Lai Wang, De-Mei Sun, Peng-Yun Li, Xue-Song Feng, Yue Tan
2024, 14(4): 100899.   doi: 10.1016/j.jpha.2023.11.006
Abstract(54) HTML Full Text PDF(5)
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Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have emerged as the first-line small molecule drugs in many cancer therapies, exerting their effects by impeding aberrant cell growth and proliferation through the modulation of tyrosine kinase-mediated signaling pathways. However, there exists a substantial inter-individual variability in the concentrations of certain TKIs and their metabolites, which may render patients with compromised immune function susceptible to diverse infections despite receiving theoretically efficacious anticancer treatments, alongside other potential side effects or adverse reactions. Therefore, an urgent need exists for an up-to-date review concerning the biological matrices relevant to bioanalysis and the sampling methods, clinical pharmacokinetics, and therapeutic drug monitoring of different TKIs. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the advancements in pretreatment methods, such as protein precipitation (PPT), liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), solid-phase extraction (SPE), micro-SPE (μ-SPE), magnetic SPE (MSPE), and vortex-assisted dispersive SPE (VA-DSPE) achieved since 2017. It also highlights the latest analysis techniques such as newly developed high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) methods, capillary electrophoresis (CE), gas chromatography (GC), supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) procedures, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) assays as well as novel nanoprobes-based biosensing techniques. In addition, a comparison is made between the advantages and disadvantages of different approaches while presenting critical challenges and prospects in pharmacokinetic studies and therapeutic drug monitoring.
Original articles
YTE-17 inhibits colonic carcinogenesis by resetting antitumor immune response via Wnt5a/JNK mediated metabolic signaling
Hua Sui, Wanli Deng, Qiong Chai, Bing Han, Yuli Zhang, Zhenzhen Wei, Zan Li, Ting Wang, Jiling Feng, Man Yuan, Qingfeng Tang, Hongxi Xu
2024, 14(4): 100901.   doi: 10.1016/j.jpha.2023.11.008
Abstract(54) HTML Full Text PDF(5)
Abstract:
The density and composition of lymphocytes infiltrating colon tumors serve as predictive factors for the clinical outcome of colon cancer. Our previous studies highlighted the potent anti-cancer properties of the principal compounds found in Garcinia yunnanensis (YTE-17), attributing these effects to the regulation of multiple signaling pathways. However, knowledge regarding the mechanism and effect of YTE-17 in the prevention of colorectal cancer is limited. In this study, we conducted isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) analysis on intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) exposed YTE-17, both in vitro and in vivo, revealing a significant inhibition of the Wnt family member 5a (Wnt5a)/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway. Subsequently, we elucidated the influence and mechanism of YTE-17 on the tumor microenvironment (TME), specifically focusing on macrophage-mediated T helper 17 (Th17) cell induction in a colitis-associated cancer (CAC) model with Wnt5a deletion. Additionally, we performed the single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) on the colonic tissue from the Wnt5a-deleted CAC model to characterize the composition, lineage, and functional status of immune mesenchymal cells during different stages of colorectal cancer (CRC) progression. Remarkably, our findings demonstrate a significant reduction in M2 macrophage polarization and Th17 cell phenotype upon treatment with YTE-17, leading to the restoration of regulatory T (Treg)/Th17 cell balance in azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) model. Furthermore, we also confirmed that YTE-17 effectively inhibited the glycolysis of Th17 cells in both direct and indirect co-culture systems with M2 macrophages. Notably, our study shed light on potential mechanisms linking the non-canonical Wnt5a/JNK signaling pathway and well-established canonical β-catenin oncogenic pathway in vivo. Specifically, we proposed that Wnt5a/JNK signaling activity in IECs promotes the development of cancer stem cells with β-catenin activity within the TME, involving macrophages and T cells. In summary, our study undergoes the potential of YTE-17 as a preventive strategy against CRC development by addressing the imbalance with the immune microenvironment, thereby mitigating the risk of malignancies.
An environmentally sensitive zinc-selective two-photon NIR fluorescent turn-on probe and zinc sensing in stroke
Junfeng Wang, Qibing Liu, Yingbo Li, Yi Pang
2024, 14(4): 100903.   doi: 10.1016/j.jpha.2023.11.010
Abstract(21) HTML Full Text PDF(2)
Abstract:
A two-photon near infrared (NIR) fluorescence turn-on sensor with high selectivity and sensitivity for Zn2+ detection has been developed. This sensor exhibits a large Stokes' shift (∼300 nm) and can be excited from 900 to 1000 nm, with an emission wavelength of ∼785 nm, making it ideal for imaging in biological tissues. The sensor's high selectivity for Zn2+ over other structurally similar cations, such as Cd2+, makes it a promising tool for monitoring zinc ion levels in biological systems. Given the high concentration of zinc in thrombi, this sensor could provide a useful tool for in vivo thrombus imaging.
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Molecular immune pathogenesis and diagnosis of COVID-19
Xiaowei Li, Manman Geng, Yizhao Peng, Liesu Meng, Shemin Lu
2020, 10(2): 102-108.  
[Abstract](586) [PDF 2284KB](13)
摘要:
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a kind of viral pneumonia which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 has been marked as the third introduction of a highly pathogenic coronavirus into the human population after the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome coro-navirus (MERS-CoV) in the twenty-first century. In this minireview, we provide a brief introduction of the general features of SARS-CoV-2 and discuss current knowledge of molecular immune pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19 on the base of the present understanding of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV infections, which may be helpful in offering novel insights and potential therapeutic targets for combating the SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Structural basis of SARS-CoV-23CLpro and anti-COVID-19 drug discovery from medicinal plants
Muhammad Tahir ul Qamar, Safar M.Alqahtani, Mubarak A.Alamri, Ling-Ling Chen
2020, 10(4): 313-319.  
[Abstract](650) [PDF 5841KB](26)
摘要:
The recent pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 has raised global health concerns. The viral 3-chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease (3CLpro) enzyme controls coronavirus replication and is essential for its life cycle. 3CLpro is a proven drug discovery target in the case of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Recent studies revealed that the genome sequence of SARS-CoV-2 is very similar to that of SARS-CoV. Therefore, herein, we analysed the 3CLpro sequence, constructed its 3D homology model, and screened it against a medicinal plant library containing 32,297 potential anti-viral phytochemicals/traditional Chinese medicinal compounds. Our analyses revealed that the top nine hits might serve as potential anti- SARS-CoV-2 lead molecules for further optimisation and drug development process to combat COVID-19.
Recent advances and perspectives of nucleic acid detection for coronavirus
Minzhe Shen, Ying Zhou, Jiawei Ye, Abdu Ahmed Abdullah AL-maskri, Yu Kang, Su Zeng, Sheng Cai
2020, 10(2): 97-101.  
[Abstract](505) [PDF 2697KB](11)
摘要:
The recent pneumonia outbreak caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is posing a great threat to global public health. Therefore, rapid and accurate identification of pathogenic viruses plays a vital role in selecting appropriate treatments, saving people's lives and preventing epidemics. It is important to establish a quick standard diagnostic test for the detection of the infectious disease (COVID-19) to prevent subsequent secondary spread. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is regarded as a gold standard test for the molecular diagnosis of viral and bacterial infections with high sensitivity and specificity. Isothermal nucleic acid amplification is considered to be a highly promising candidate method due to its fundamental advantage in quick procedure time at constant temperature without thermocycler opera-tion. A variety of improved or new approaches also have been developed. This review summarizes the currently available detection methods for coronavirus nucleic acid. It is anticipated that this will assist researchers and clinicians in developing better techniques for timely and effective detection of coro-navirus infection.
Application of microfluidic chip technology in pharmaceutical analysis:A review
Ping Cui, Sicen Wang
2019, 9(4): 238-247.  
[Abstract](250) [PDF 5845KB](14)
摘要:
The development of pharmaceutical analytical methods represents one of the most significant aspects of drug development. Recent advances in microfabrication and microfluidics could provide new approaches for drug analysis, including drug screening, active testing and the study of metabolism. Microfluidic chip technologies, such as lab-on-a-chip technology, three-dimensional (3D) cell culture, organs-on-chip and droplet techniques, have all been developed rapidly. Microfluidic chips coupled with various kinds of detection techniques are suitable for the high-throughput screening, detection and mechanistic study of drugs. This review highlights the latest (2010–2018) microfluidic technology for drug analysis and dis-cusses the potential future development in this field.
Research advances in the detection of miRNA
Jiawei Ye, Mingcheng Xu, Xueke Tian, Sheng Cai, Su Zeng
2019, 9(4): 217-226.  
[Abstract](382) [PDF 6429KB](12)
摘要:
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a family of endogenous, small (approximately 22 nucleotides in length), noncoding, functional RNAs. With the development of molecular biology, the research of miRNA bio-logical function has attracted significant interest, as abnormal miRNA expression is identified to contribute to serious human diseases such as cancers. Traditional methods for miRNA detection do not meet current demands. In particular, nanomaterial-based methods, nucleic acid amplification-based methods such as rolling circle amplification (RCA), loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), strand-displacement amplification (SDA) and some enzyme-free amplifications have been employed widely for the highly sensitive detection of miRNA. MiRNA functional research and clinical diagnostics have been accelerated by these new techniques. Herein, we summarize and discuss the recent progress in the development of miRNA detection methods and new applications. This review will provide guidelines for the development of follow-up miRNA detection methods with high sensitivity and spec-ificity, and applicability to disease diagnosis and therapy.
Structural elucidation of SARS-CoV-2 vital proteins: Computational methods reveal potential drug candidates against main protease, Nsp12 polymerase and Nsp13 helicase
Muhammad Usman Mirza, Matheus Froeyen
2020, 10(4): 320-328.  
[Abstract](362) [PDF 19436KB](10)
摘要:
Recently emerged SARS-CoV-2 caused a major outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and instigated a widespread fear, threatening global health safety. To date, no licensed antiviral drugs or vaccines are available against COVID-19 although several clinical trials are under way to test possible therapies. During this urgent situation, computational drug discovery methods provide an alternative to tiresome high-throughput screening, particularly in the hit-to-lead-optimization stage. Identification of small molecules that specifically target viral replication apparatus has indicated the highest potential towards antiviral drug discovery. In this work, we present potential compounds that specifically target SARS-CoV-2 vital proteins, including the main protease, Nsp12 RNA polymerase and Nsp13 helicase. An integrative virtual screening and molecular dynamics simulations approach has facilitated the identifi-cation of potential binding modes and favourable molecular interaction profile of corresponding com-pounds. Moreover, the identification of structurally important binding site residues in conserved motifs located inside the active site highlights relative importance of ligand binding based on residual energy decomposition analysis. Although the current study lacks experimental validation, the structural infor-mation obtained from this computational study has paved way for the design of targeted inhibitors to combat COVID-19 outbreak.
Carbon nanotubes:Evaluation of toxicity at biointerfaces
Debashish Mohanta, Soma Patnaik, Sanchit Sood, Nilanjan Das
2019, 9(5): 293-300.  
[Abstract](257) [PDF 3216KB](6)
摘要:
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are a class of carbon allotropes with interesting properties that make them productive materials for usage in various disciplines of nanotechnology such as in electronics equip-ments, optics and therapeutics. They exhibit distinguished properties viz., strength, and high electrical and heat conductivity. Their uniqueness can be attributed due to the bonding pattern present between the atoms which are very strong and also exhibit high extreme aspect ratios. CNTs are classified as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the basis of number of sidewalls present and the way they are arranged spatially. Application of CNTs to improve the performance of many products, especially in healthcare, has led to an occupational and public exposure to these nanomaterials. Hence, it becomes a major concern to analyze the issues pertaining to the toxicity of CNTs and find the best suitable ways to counter those challenges. This review summarizes the toxicity issues of CNTs in vitro and in vivo in different organ systems (bio interphases) of the body that result in cellular toxicity.
Identification and characterization of phenolics and terpenoids from ethanolic extracts of Phyllanthus species by HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS
Sunil Kumar, Awantika Singh, Brijesh Kumar
2017, 7(4): 214-222.  
[Abstract](467) [PDF 3923KB](37)
摘要:
Phyllanthus species plants are a rich source of phenolics and widely used due to their medicinal properties. A liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) method was developed using high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS) for the identification and characterization of quercetin, kaempferol, ellagic acid and their derivatives in ethanolic extracts of Phyllanthus species. The chromatographic separation was carried out on Thermo Betasil C8 column (250 mm×4.5 mm, 5 μm) using 0.1% formic acid in water and 0.1% formic acid in methanol as the mobile phase. The identification of diagnostic fragment ions and optimization of collision energies were carried out using 21 reference standards. Totally 51 compounds were identified which include 21 compounds identified and characterized unambiguously by comparison with their authentic standards and the remaining 30 were tentatively identified and characterized in ethanolic extracts of P. emblica, P. fraternus, P. amarus and P. niruri.
Progress and prediction of multicomponent quantification in complex systems with practical LC-UV methods
Xi Chen, Zhao Yang, Yang Xu, Zhe Liu, Yanfang Liu, Yuntao Dai, Shilin Chen
2023, 13(2): 142-155.   doi: 10.1016/j.jpha.2022.11.011
[Abstract](2135) [PDF 1336KB](1063)
Abstract:
Complex systems exist widely, including medicines from natural products, functional foods, and biological samples. The biological activity of complex systems is often the result of the synergistic effect of multiple components. In the quality evaluation of complex samples, multicomponent quantitative analysis (MCQA) is usually needed. To overcome the difficulty in obtaining standard products, scholars have proposed achieving MCQA through the “single standard to determine multiple components (SSDMC)” approach. This method has been used in the determination of multicomponent content in natural source drugs and the analysis of impurities in chemical drugs and has been included in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Depending on a convenient (ultra) high-performance liquid chromatography method, how can the repeatability and robustness of the MCQA method be improved? How can the chromatography conditions be optimized to improve the number of quantitative components? How can computer software technology be introduced to improve the efficiency of multicomponent analysis (MCA)? These are the key problems that remain to be solved in practical MCQA. First, this review article summarizes the calculation methods of relative correction factors in the SSDMC approach in the past five years, as well as the method robustness and accuracy evaluation. Second, it also summarizes methods to improve peak capacity and quantitative accuracy in MCA, including column selection and two-dimensional chromatographic analysis technology. Finally, computer software technologies for predicting chromatographic conditions and analytical parameters are introduced, which provides an idea for intelligent method development in MCA. This paper aims to provide methodological ideas for the improvement of complex system analysis, especially MCQA.
Single-cell RNA-sequencing and subcellular spatial transcriptomics facilitate the translation of liver microphysiological systems for regulatory application
Dan Li, Zhou Fang, Qiang Shi, Nicholas Zhang, Binsheng Gong, Weida Tong, Ahmet F. Coskun, Joshua Xu
2023, 13(7): 691-693.   doi: 10.1016/j.jpha.2023.06.013
[Abstract](549) [PDF 707KB](267)
Abstract:
Single-cell analyses reveal cannabidiol rewires tumor microenvironment via inhibiting alternative activation of macrophage and synergizes with anti-PD-1 in colon cancer
Xiaofan Sun, Lisha Zhou, Yi Wang, Guoliang Deng, Xinran Cao, Bowen Ke, Xiaoqi Wu, Yanhong Gu, Haibo Cheng, Qiang Xu, Qianming Du, Hongqi Chen, Yang Sun
2023, 13(7): 726-744.   doi: 10.1016/j.jpha.2023.04.013
[Abstract](443) [PDF 9014KB](218)
Abstract:
Colorectal tumors often create an immunosuppressive microenvironment that prevents them from responding to immunotherapy. Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychoactive natural active ingredient from the cannabis plant that has various pharmacological effects, including neuroprotective, antiemetic, anti-inflammatory, and antineoplastic activities. This study aimed to elucidate the specific anticancer mechanism of CBD by single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) and single-cell ATAC sequencing (scATAC-seq) technologies. Here, we report that CBD inhibits colorectal cancer progression by modulating the suppressive tumor microenvironment (TME). Our single-cell transcriptome and ATAC sequencing results showed that CBD suppressed M2-like macrophages and promoted M1-like macrophages in tumors both in strength and quantity. Furthermore, CBD significantly enhanced the interaction between M1-like macrophages and tumor cells and restored the intrinsic anti-tumor properties of macrophages, thereby preventing tumor progression. Mechanistically, CBD altered the metabolic pattern of macrophages and related anti-tumor signaling pathways. We found that CBD inhibited the alternative activation of macrophages and shifted the metabolic process from oxidative phosphorylation and fatty acid oxidation to glycolysis by inhibiting the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-protein kinase B signaling pathway and related downstream target genes. Furthermore, CBD-mediated macrophage plasticity enhanced the response to anti-programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) immunotherapy in xenografted mice. Taken together, we provide new insights into the anti-tumor effects of CBD.
Multidisciplinary strategies to enhance therapeutic effects of flavonoids from Epimedii Folium: Integration of herbal medicine, enzyme engineering, and nanotechnology
Yi Lu, Qiulan Luo, Xiaobin Jia, James P. Tam, Huan Yang, Yuping Shen, Xin Li
2023, 13(3): 239-254.   doi: 10.1016/j.jpha.2022.12.001
[Abstract](670) [PDF 3796KB](333)
Abstract:
Flavonoids such as baohuoside I and icaritin are the major active compounds in Epimedii Folium (EF) and possess excellent therapeutic effects on various diseases. Encouragingly, in 2022, icaritin soft capsules were approved to reach the market for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by National Medical Products Administration (NMPA) of China. Moreover, recent studies demonstrate that icaritin can serve as immune-modulating agent to exert anti-tumor effects. Nonetheless, both production efficiency and clinical applications of epimedium flavonoids have been restrained because of their low content, poor bioavailability, and unfavorable in vivo delivery efficiency. Recently, various strategies, including enzyme engineering and nanotechnology, have been developed to increase productivity and activity, improve delivery efficiency, and enhance therapeutic effects of epimedium flavonoids. In this review, the structure-activity relationship of epimedium flavonoids is described. Then, enzymatic engineering strategies for increasing the productivity of highly active baohuoside I and icaritin are discussed. The nanomedicines for overcoming in vivo delivery barriers and improving therapeutic effects of various diseases are summarized. Finally, the challenges and an outlook on clinical translation of epimedium flavonoids are proposed.
Single-cell analysis of cellular heterogeneity and interactions in the ischemia-reperfusion injured mouse intestine
Lianhong Yin, Meng Gao, Lina Xu, Yan Qi, Lan Han, Jinyong Peng
2023, 13(7): 760-775.   doi: 10.1016/j.jpha.2023.02.002
[Abstract](418) [PDF 9277KB](205)
Abstract:
Nine major cell populations among 46,716 cells were identified in mouse intestinal ischemia‒reperfusion (II/R) injury by single-cell RNA sequencing. For enterocyte cells, 11 subclusters were found, in which enterocyte cluster 1 (EC1), enterocyte cluster 3 (EC3), and enterocyte cluster 8 (EC8) were newly discovered cells in ischemia 45 min/reperfusion 720 min (I 45 min/R 720 min) group. EC1 and EC3 played roles in digestion and absorption, and EC8 played a role in cell junctions. For TA cells, after ischemia 45 min/reperfusion 90 min (I 45 min/R 90 min), many TA cells at the stage of proliferation were identified. For Paneth cells, Paneth cluster 3 was observed in the resting state of normal jejunum. After I 45 min/R 90 min, three new subsets were found, in which Paneth cluster 1 had good antigen presentation activity. The main functions of goblet cells were to synthesize and secrete mucus, and a novel subcluster (goblet cluster 5) with highly proliferative ability was discovered in I 45 min/R 90 min group. As a major part of immune system, the changes in T cells with important roles were clarified. Notably, enterocyte cells secreted Guca2b to interact with Gucy2c receptor on the membranes of stem cells, TA cells, Paneth cells, and goblet cells to elicit intercellular communication. One marker known as glutathione S-transferase mu 3 (GSTM3) affected intestinal mucosal barrier function by adjusting mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling during II/R injury. The data on the heterogeneity of intestinal cells, cellular communication and the mechanism of GSTM3 provide a cellular basis for treating II/R injury.
Ginsenoside Rk3 is a novel PI3K/AKT-targeting therapeutics agent that regulates autophagy and apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma
Linlin Qu, Yannan Liu, Jianjun Deng, Xiaoxuan Ma, Daidi Fan
2023, 13(5): 463-482.   doi: 10.1016/j.jpha.2023.03.006
[Abstract](470) [PDF 12621KB](230)
Abstract:
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Ginsenoside Rk3, an important and rare saponin in heat-treated ginseng, is generated from Rg1 and has a smaller molecular weight. However, the anti-HCC efficacy and mechanisms of ginsenoside Rk3 have not yet been characterized. Here, we investigated the mechanism by which ginsenoside Rk3, a tetracyclic triterpenoid rare ginsenoside, inhibits the growth of HCC. We first explored the possible potential targets of Rk3 through network pharmacology. Both in vitro (HepG2 and HCC-LM3 cells) and in vivo (primary liver cancer mice and HCC-LM3 subcutaneous tumor-bearing mice) studies revealed that Rk3 significantly inhibits the proliferation of HCC. Meanwhile, Rk3 blocked the cell cycle in HCC at the G1 phase and induced autophagy and apoptosis in HCC. Further proteomics and siRNA experiments showed that Rk3 regulates the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) pathway to inhibit HCC growth, which was validated by molecular docking and surface plasmon resonance. In conclusion, we report the discovery that ginsenoside Rk3 binds to PI3K/AKT and promotes autophagy and apoptosis in HCC. Our data strongly support the translation of ginsenoside Rk3 into novel PI3K/AKT-targeting therapeutics for HCC treatment with low toxic side effects.
Rabdosia serra alleviates dextran sulfate sodium salt-induced colitis in mice through anti-inflammation, regulating Th17/Treg balance, maintaining intestinal barrier integrity, and modulating gut microbiota
Hongyi Li, Yi Wang, Shumin Shao, Hui Yu, Deqin Wang, Chuyuan Li, Qin Yuan, Wen Liu, Jiliang Cao, Xiaojuan Wang, Haibiao Guo, Xu Wu, Shengpeng Wang
2022, 12(6): 824-838.   doi: 10.1016/j.jpha.2022.08.001
[Abstract](473) [PDF 5798KB](232)
Abstract:
Rabdosia serra (R. serra), an important component of Chinese herbal tea, has traditionally been used to treat hepatitis, jaundice, cholecystitis, and colitis. However, the chemical composition of R. serra and its effect against colitis remain unclear. In this study, the chemical composition of the water extract of R. serra was analyzed using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with a hybrid linear ion trap quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometer (UPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS). A total of 46 compounds, comprising ent-kaurane diterpenoids, flavonoids, phenolic acids, and steroids, were identified in the water extract of R. serra, and the extract could significantly alleviate dextran sulfate sodium salt-induced colitis by improving colon length, upregulating anti-inflammatory factors, downregulating proinflammatory factors, and restoring the balance of T helper 17/T regulatory cells. R. serra also preserved intestinal barrier function by increasing the level of tight junction proteins (zonula occludens 1 and occludin) in mouse colonic tissue. In addition, R. serra modulated the gut microbiota composition by increasing bacterial richness and diversity, increasing the abundance of beneficial bacteria (Muribaculaceae, Bacteroides, Lactobacillus, and Prevotellaceae_UCG-001), and decreasing the abundance of pathogenic bacteria (Turicibacter, Eubacterium_fissicatena_group, and Eubacterium_xylanophilum_group). Gut microbiota depletion by antibiotics further confirmed that R. serra alleviated colitis in a microbiota-dependent manner. Overall, our findings provide chemical and biological evidence for the potential application of R. serra in the management of colitis.
Development of a CLDN18.2-targeting immuno-PET probe for non-invasive imaging in gastrointestinal tumors
Yan Chen, Xingguo Hou, Dapeng Li, Jin Ding, Jiayue Liu, Zilei Wang, Fei Teng, Hongjun Li, Fan Zhang, Yi Gu, Steven Yu, Xueming Qian, Zhi Yang, Hua Zhu
2023, 13(4): 367-375.   doi: 10.1016/j.jpha.2023.02.011
[Abstract](537) [PDF 2693KB](263)
Abstract:
Claudin18.2 (CLDN18.2) is a tight junction protein that is overexpressed in a variety of solid tumors such as gastrointestinal cancer and oesophageal cancer. It has been identified as a promising target and a potential biomarker to diagnose tumor, evaluate efficacy, and determine patient prognosis. TST001 is a recombinant humanized CLDN18.2 antibody that selectively binds to the extracellular loop of human Claudin18.2. In this study, we constructed a solid target radionuclide zirconium-89 (89Zr) labled-TST001 to detect the expression of in the human stomach cancer BGC823CLDN18.2 cell lines. The [89Zr]Zr-desferrioxamine (DFO)-TST001 showed high radiochemical purity (RCP, >99%) and specific activity (24.15±1.34 GBq/μmol), and was stable in 5% human serum albumin, and phosphate buffer saline (>85% RCP at 96h). The EC50 values of TST001 and DFO-TST001 were as high as 0.413±0.055 and 0.361±0.058nM(P>0.05), respectively. The radiotracer had a significantly higher average standard uptake values in CLDN18.2-positive tumors than in CLDN18.2-negative tumors (1.11±0.02 vs. 0.49±0.03, P=0.0016) 2 days post injection (p.i.). BGC823CLDN18.2 mice models showed high tumor/muscle ratios 96h p.i. with [89Zr]Zr-DFO-TST001 was much higher than those of the other imaging groups. Immunohistochemistry results showed that BGC823CLDN18.2 tumors were highly positive (+++) for CLDN18.2, while those in the BGC823 group did not express CLDN18.2 (-). The results of exvivo biodistribution studies showed that there was a higher distribution in the BGC823CLDN18.2 tumor bearing mice (2.05±0.16 %ID/g) than BGC823 mice (0.69±0.02 %ID/g) and blocking group (0.72±0.02 %ID/g). A dosimetry estimation study showed that the effective dose of [89Zr]Zr-DFO-TST001 was 0.0705 mSv/MBq, which is within the range of acceptable doses for nuclear medicine research. Taken together, these results suggest that Good Manufacturing Practices produced by this immuno-positron emission tomography probe can detect CLDN18.2-overexpressing tumors.
Progress and prediction of multicomponent quantification in complex systems with practical LC-UV methods
Xi Chen , Zhao Yang etc.
2023, 13(2): 142-155.   doi: 10.1016/j.jpha.2022.11.011
Single-cell RNA-sequencing and subcellular spatial transcriptomics facilitate the translation of liver microphysiological systems for regulatory application
Dan Li , Zhou Fang etc.
2023, 13(7): 691-693.   doi: 10.1016/j.jpha.2023.06.013
Single-cell analyses reveal cannabidiol rewires tumor microenvironment via inhibiting alternative activation of macrophage and synergizes with anti-PD-1 in colon cancer
Xiaofan Sun , Lisha Zhou etc.
2023, 13(7): 726-744.   doi: 10.1016/j.jpha.2023.04.013
Multidisciplinary strategies to enhance therapeutic effects of flavonoids from Epimedii Folium: Integration of herbal medicine, enzyme engineering, and nanotechnology
Yi Lu , Qiulan Luo etc.
2023, 13(3): 239-254.   doi: 10.1016/j.jpha.2022.12.001
Single-cell analysis of cellular heterogeneity and interactions in the ischemia-reperfusion injured mouse intestine
Lianhong Yin , Meng Gao etc.
2023, 13(7): 760-775.   doi: 10.1016/j.jpha.2023.02.002
Ginsenoside Rk3 is a novel PI3K/AKT-targeting therapeutics agent that regulates autophagy and apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma
Linlin Qu , Yannan Liu etc.
2023, 13(5): 463-482.   doi: 10.1016/j.jpha.2023.03.006
Rabdosia serra alleviates dextran sulfate sodium salt-induced colitis in mice through anti-inflammation, regulating Th17/Treg balance, maintaining intestinal barrier integrity, and modulating gut microbiota
Hongyi Li , Yi Wang etc.
2022, 12(6): 824-838.   doi: 10.1016/j.jpha.2022.08.001
Development of a CLDN18.2-targeting immuno-PET probe for non-invasive imaging in gastrointestinal tumors
Yan Chen , Xingguo Hou etc.
2023, 13(4): 367-375.   doi: 10.1016/j.jpha.2023.02.011
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