Volume 13 Issue 3
Mar.  2023
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Yi Lu, Qiulan Luo, Xiaobin Jia, James P. Tam, Huan Yang, Yuping Shen, Xin Li. Multidisciplinary strategies to enhance therapeutic effects of flavonoids from Epimedii Folium: Integration of herbal medicine, enzyme engineering, and nanotechnology[J]. Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis, 2023, 13(3): 239-254. doi: 10.1016/j.jpha.2022.12.001
Citation: Yi Lu, Qiulan Luo, Xiaobin Jia, James P. Tam, Huan Yang, Yuping Shen, Xin Li. Multidisciplinary strategies to enhance therapeutic effects of flavonoids from Epimedii Folium: Integration of herbal medicine, enzyme engineering, and nanotechnology[J]. Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis, 2023, 13(3): 239-254. doi: 10.1016/j.jpha.2022.12.001

Multidisciplinary strategies to enhance therapeutic effects of flavonoids from Epimedii Folium: Integration of herbal medicine, enzyme engineering, and nanotechnology

doi: 10.1016/j.jpha.2022.12.001
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This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No.: 81873196), Sino-German Center for Research Promotion (Project No.: GZ1505), Chinese Scholarship Council, and Science and Technology Planning Projects of Jiaxing City (Project No.: 2022AY10014).

  • Received Date: Aug. 30, 2022
  • Accepted Date: Dec. 27, 2022
  • Rev Recd Date: Nov. 29, 2022
  • Publish Date: Dec. 30, 2022
  • Flavonoids such as baohuoside I and icaritin are the major active compounds in Epimedii Folium (EF) and possess excellent therapeutic effects on various diseases. Encouragingly, in 2022, icaritin soft capsules were approved to reach the market for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by National Medical Products Administration (NMPA) of China. Moreover, recent studies demonstrate that icaritin can serve as immune-modulating agent to exert anti-tumor effects. Nonetheless, both production efficiency and clinical applications of epimedium flavonoids have been restrained because of their low content, poor bioavailability, and unfavorable in vivo delivery efficiency. Recently, various strategies, including enzyme engineering and nanotechnology, have been developed to increase productivity and activity, improve delivery efficiency, and enhance therapeutic effects of epimedium flavonoids. In this review, the structure-activity relationship of epimedium flavonoids is described. Then, enzymatic engineering strategies for increasing the productivity of highly active baohuoside I and icaritin are discussed. The nanomedicines for overcoming in vivo delivery barriers and improving therapeutic effects of various diseases are summarized. Finally, the challenges and an outlook on clinical translation of epimedium flavonoids are proposed.
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